Passing Functions Around

While every programming language ever created probably lets you write pure functions, a second great FP feature of Scala is that you can create functions as variables, just like you create String and Int variables. This feature has many benefits, the most common of which is that it lets you pass functions as parameters into other functions. You saw that earlier in this book when I demonstrated the map and filter methods:

val nums = (1 to 10).toList

val doubles = * 2)
val lessThanFive = nums.filter(_ < 5)

In those examples I pass anonymous functions into map and filter.

In the lesson on anonymous functions I demonstrated that this example:

val doubles = * 2)

is the same as passing a regular function into map:

def double(i: Int): Int = i * 2   //a method that doubles an Int
val doubles =

As those examples show, Scala clearly lets you pass anonymous functions and regular functions into other methods. This is a powerful feature that good FP languages provide.

If you like technical terms, a function that takes another function as an input parameter is known as a Higher-Order Function (HOF). (And if you like humor, as someone once wrote, that’s like saying that a class that takes an instance of another class as a constructor parameter is a Higher-Order Class.)

Function or method?

Scala has a special “function” syntax, but as a practical matter very few people seem to use it. I think this is because of two reasons:

  • That function syntax can be hard to read
  • You can use def methods just like they are functions

What I mean by that second statement is that when you define a method with def like this:

def double(i: Int): Int = i * 2

you can then pass double around as if it were a variable, like this:

val x =

Even though I define double as a method, Scala lets you treat it as a function.

The ability to pass functions around as variables is a distinguishing feature of functional programming languages. And as you’ve seen in map and filter examples in this book, the ability to pass functions as parameters into other functions helps you create code that is concise and still readable.

A few examples

If you’re not comfortable with the process of passing functions as parameters into other functions, here are a few more examples you can experiment with in the REPL:

List("foo", "bar").map(_.toUpperCase)
List("foo", "bar").map(_.capitalize)
List("adam", "scott").map(_.length)
List(1,2,3,4,5).map(_ * 10)
List(1,2,3,4,5).filter(_ > 2)
List(5,1,3,11,7).takeWhile(_ < 6)

Remember that any of those anonymous functions can also be written as “regular” functions, so you can write a function like this:

def toUpper(s: String): String = s.toUpperCase

and then pass it into map like this:

List("foo", "bar").map(toUpper)

or this:

List("foo", "bar").map(s => toUpper(s))

Those examples that use a “regular” function are equivalent to these anonymous function examples:

List("foo", "bar").map(s => s.toUpperCase)
List("foo", "bar").map(_.toUpperCase)

How to write functions that takes functions as parameters

In both the Scala Cookbook and Functional Programming, Simplified I demonstrate how to write methods like map and filter that take other functions as input parameters. I won’t do that in this book, but when you get to the point where you want to write functions like this, it’s a technique you’ll want to learn.

See also

If you want to see what Scala’s “function” syntax looks like, see my tutorial, The differences between val and def in Scala when creating functions.

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